Delays or stops hair loss in almost 90% of men. About two-thirds of these men also grow back. . Baldness is an accepted part of the aging process for some and a source of distress for others.
Hair loss affects millions of men and women, but despite decades of research, there is still no cure available. How close are we to finding a magic solution for baldness? Medical News Today takes a look at the evidence. Androgenetic alopecia, which is more commonly known as male pattern baldness and female pattern baldness, is the most common type of hair loss and affects about 30 million women and 50 million men in the United States. In men, hair loss begins above both temples and recedes over time to form an “M”.
Hair also tends to thin at the crown of the head and can progress to partial or complete baldness. In women, the hairline does not recede and rarely produces total baldness, but the hair usually becomes thinner all over the head. The causes of female pattern baldness are not clear. However, hair loss occurs more often in women after menopause, indicating that the condition may be associated with decreased hormones.
With androgenetic alopecia affecting so many people, a permanent cure would not only lessen the anxiety of a significant percentage of the population, but would also be economically advantageous to the pharmaceutical company responsible for the discovery. Hair consists of the hair follicle (a pocket in the skin that anchors each hair) and the stem (the fiber visible above the scalp). In the hair bulb, located at the base of the follicle, cells divide and grow to produce the hair shaft, which is made from a protein called keratin. The papilla surrounding the bulb contains small blood vessels that nourish the hair follicles and supply hormones to regulate hair growth and structure.
Hair follicles, like all cells, have cycles. A natural part of the cycle involves losing around 50 to 100 hairs per day. Scientists now understand that pattern baldness occurs through a phenomenon known as miniaturization. Some hair follicles appear to be genetically hypersensitive to the actions of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is a hormone that is converted from testosterone with the help of an enzyme contained in the sebaceous glands of the follicle.
DHT binds to receptors in hair follicles and shrinks them, making them progressively smaller. Over time, follicles produce thinner hairs and grow for a shorter time than normal. Over time, the follicle no longer produces hair, leaving the area bald. Currently, there are few treatment options available to stop or reverse miniaturization.
Most hair loss treatments only control hair loss, rather than being a. The only two drugs approved by the U.S. UU. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat hair loss are minoxidil (Rogaine) and finasteride (Propecia).
The use of Minoxidil for pattern baldness was discovered by accident. Minoxidil was widely used to treat high blood pressure, but researchers found that one of the drug's side effects was hair growth in unexpected areas. Minoxidil lotion is applied to the scalp and can work by increasing blood flow, and therefore nutrition, to the hair follicles. The American Hair Loss Association says most experts agree that minoxidil is “a relatively marginally effective drug in fighting hair loss.
The treatment has no effect on the hormonal process of hair loss, and its benefits are temporary. Hair loss continues if use is discontinued. Side effects of finasteride from hair growth were found during the development of a drug to treat enlarged prostate glands. Finasteride inhibits type II 5-alpha-reductase, which is the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone to the most potent androgen DHT.
DHT levels are reported to be reduced by 60 percent when taking the medication, preventing susceptible follicles from being affected by the hormone and returning to normal size. This treatment does not work in women, and its effect only lasts as long as it is taken. Dutasteride (Avodart) is used to treat prostate enlargement. While the FDA has not approved the drug to treat hair loss, doctors sometimes prescribe dutasteride off-label for male pattern baldness.
Dutasteride works in a similar way to finasteride, but may be more effective. Like finasteride, dutasteride inhibits type II 5-alpha reductase activity. However, dutasteride further inhibits type I of the enzyme. Blocking both types of enzymes further reduces DHT and reduces the risk of damage to hair follicles.
This medication faces the same limitations as finasteride, which means that it only works if taken daily and may lose effectiveness over time. These therapies can slow or prevent further hair loss and may stimulate the regrowth of follicles that have been dormant but are still viable. However, they can do little for follicles that have already become inactive. By using them at an earlier stage of hair loss, you will get more favorable results.
Hair transplant involves removing follicles from the back of the head that are resistant to DHT and transplanting them to bald areas. A surgeon will remove tiny skin plugs that contain some hairs and implant the plugs where the follicles are inactive. About 15 percent of hairs emerge from the follicle as a single hair, and 15 percent grow in groups of four or five hairs. At the end of the procedure, the person will still have the same amount of hair, it will simply be distributed more evenly around the scalp.
Treating hair loss through a surgical procedure can be painful and costly. There is also a risk of scarring and infection. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a form of light and heat treatment. LLLT has been shown to stimulate hair growth in both men and women.
Researchers hypothesize that the main mechanisms involved in the process is the stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the follicle and the displacement of the follicle back to the growth phase of the cycle. Existing medications to treat hair loss have limited effectiveness and require continued use for the benefits of treatment to continue. Researchers continue to strive to achieve the holy grail of cures for hair loss by trying to gain a better understanding of how the hair growth cycle is controlled. Rather than treating the symptoms of hair loss, scientists aim to attack the cause, which, in turn, may lead to fewer side effects.
Recently, there have been numerous discoveries in the field of hair loss that may lead to promising new treatments. Researchers at Southwestern Medical Center at the University of Texas (UT) in Dallas have identified a protein called KROX20, which activates skin cells and tells them to turn into hair. In addition, these hair precursor cells produce a protein called stem cell factor (SCF), which plays a fundamental role in hair pigmentation. When the SCF gene was eliminated in hair precursor cells in mice, gray hair grew that turned white with age.
In addition, when the KROX20-producing cells were removed, the hair stopped growing and the mice became bald. The team's future work will focus on determining if KROX20 and the SCF gene stop working properly and lead to male pattern baldness. A study led by the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom discovered 287 genetic regions involved in male pattern baldness. Many of the genes the researchers identified were related to hair structure and development.
The team's findings could not only help predict the likelihood that a man will experience severe hair loss, but they could also provide new targets for drug development to treat baldness. In a mouse model, Michael Rosenblum, Ph, D. Without associating with Treg, stem cells are unable to regenerate hair follicles, leading to hair loss. Hair growth can be restored by inhibiting the Janus kinase (JAK) family of enzymes found in hair follicles, according to researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) in New York City, NY.
Tests with human and mouse hair follicles showed that applying JAK inhibitors directly to the skin promotes “rapid and robust” hair growth. Two FDA-approved JAK inhibitors include ruxolitinib (for the treatment of blood diseases) and tofacitini (for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis). In a small clinical trial, Angela M. Christiano and his team plan to expand their studies to include testing for JAK inhibitors in other conditions and pattern of baldness.
Researchers at the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute in San Diego, CA, developed a technique to generate new hair using pluripotent stem cells. This method would provide an unlimited source of cells without limiting itself to transplanting follicles from one part of the head to another. Alexey Terskikh, PhD, D. Despite the fact that giant steps are being taken in laboratories around the world to cure baldness, research continues and the wait for a permanent solution continues.
What are the best ways to prevent hair loss? Keep reading to discover several potential options a person can use to prevent hair loss from occurring. Thinning and hair loss are common, and manufacturers offer many products to help combat these conditions. Learn more than 20 of the best products here. Studies indicate that laser therapy is safe and painless, but requires many treatment sessions.
To see some hair growth, you may need several treatments a week for many months. The average person naturally loses 50 to 100 hairs per day due to this cycle. But if the process is interrupted at any stage, for example, if the follicle does not come out of the resting mode or begins to shrink, hair loss and thinning can occur. Cycle interruptions can be caused by hormones, stress, poor diet, chemical hair treatments, certain medications and, of course, good genetics.
Minoxidil (Rogaine) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for hair loss. Topical minoxidil can be an effective treatment for androgenic hair loss,. Ask your dermatologist about possible side effects you might experience when taking one of these medications to treat hair loss. Gently pulling on the hair tells the dermatologist a lot about how the hair is growing and if it is prone to breakage.
PRP involves drawing a small amount of blood, placing it in a machine that separates it into parts, and then injecting part of the blood (the plasma) into the area with hair loss. With some treatments, you can reduce or stop thinning hair, and maybe even regrow some hair that you thought was gone forever. Sometimes hair loss is difficult and requires trying different treatments before finding one that works. While hair can regrow on its own, the dermatologist may recommend treatment to help it grow faster.
Since there are many underlying causes of hair loss, it may be helpful to consult a dermatologist before starting any type of treatment. Some people find success with treatments for hair loss, such as over-the-counter medications, prescription drugs, and home remedies. By age 50, more than half of white men have visible signs of male-pattern hair loss, such as noticeable thinning, receding hairline, or balding. They will work with you on a range of conditions, including erectile dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and hair loss.